Daniel Andrew Andy Beal born November 29 1952 is an American banker, businessman, investor, and amateur mathematician. He proposed his Beal’s Conjecture.
ABSTRACT. This article seeks to spark debates amongst today’s youth regarding a possible solution to Beal’s Conjecture. It breaks down one of the world’s most difficult math problems into layman’s terms and forces students to question some of the most fundamental rules of mathematics. More specifically; it reinforces basic algebra/critical thinking skills, makes use of properties attributed to the number one and reanalyzes the definition of a positive integer in order to provide a potential counterexample to Beal’s Conjecture.
The Undefeated Champion (Beal’s Conjecture):
Where A, B, C, x, y, and z are positive integers with x, y, z > 2, then A, B, and C have a common prime factor.
Now for the Counter-example of Doom.
Let the Games Begin:
Pre-Fight: Beal’s Conjecture is never true when (A^x= 1) + B^y = C^z. This is because 1 has no prime factors.
There are instances when positive 0 is not the same as zero. “Signed zero is zero with an associated sign. In ordinary arithmetic, −0 = +0 = 0. However, in computing, some number of representations allow for the existence of two zeros, often denoted by −0 (negative zero) and +0 (positive zero)”. Furthermore, the same website proved that signed 0 sometimes produces different results than 0. “…the concept of signed zero runs contrary to the general assumption made in most mathematical fields (and in most mathematics courses) that negative zero is the same thing as zero. Representations that allow negative zero can be a source of errors in programs, as software developers do not realize (or may forget) that, while the two zero representations behave as equal under numeric comparisons, they are different bit patterns and yield different results in some operations.”
Additionally, the site confirmed that signed zero can be used to represent different concepts “…signed zero echoes the mathematical analysis concept of approaching 0 from below as a one-sided limit, which may be denoted by x → 0− , x → 0−, or x → ↑0. The notation “−0” may be used informally to denote a small negative number that has been rounded to zero. The concept of negative zero also has some theoretical applications in statistical mechanics and other disciplines.” Since 0 is an integer and it is possible for positive 0 to not be the same as 0; that means there are some rare instances when positive 0 could technically be considered a positive integer, due to the fact that it is both positive and an integer
If the formula (A^x= 1) + B^y = C^z is used when the existence of positive 0 that can technically be considered a positive integer is allowed, then the following statement disproves Beal’s Conjecture: 1^3 + (+0)^4= 1^5(When reduced this is equivalent to 1+0=1).
Moves Performed During the Fatality (values used):
A=1; B=+0; C=1;
x=3; y=4; z=5
Can you choose a winner?
Some people may say that Beal’s Conjecture won this fight due to the fact that zero is NEVER included in “the positive integers.” Furthermore, some people may say that it is highly implied that the numbers used in the final answer must be greater than zero. Others may argue that Positive Zero won the match due to the fact that it is never specifically stated in the question that a positive integer has to be greater than zero or part of the “official positive integers.” The question only states that the integer must be positive and that ANY counterexample to the question posed is acceptable. Based on what you have read in this story and what you have learned in previous math classes, who do you think won the final match?
Questions to consider:
- Are there ever exceptions to rules in mathematics?
- Are there certain rules that always remain true in mathematics?
- Should a question be judged on what is written or what is implied?
- When is it acceptable to alter a mathematics rule?
- If the definition of positive integer changes, should Beal be allowed to alter his question?
- Is positive zero really different from zero? Does allowing the use of positive zero alter the original question?
Can you think of more?